Implicancias éticas en la atención hospitalaria a personas con discapacidad intelectual: una revisión narrativa

Autores/as

  • Narcisa Reto Hospital “Carlos Alberto Cortez Jiménez” - EsSalud. Tumbes, Perú. Médico especialista en neurología, Magister en Docencia, Currículo e Investigación. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8107-1657
  • Miriam Arredondo-Nontol Hospital “Carlos Alberto Cortez Jiménez” - EsSalud. Tumbes, Perú. Universidad Nacional de Tumbes. Tumbes, Perú. Médico especialista en pediatría, Magister en Medicina con mención en Pediatría. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6269-7593
  • Rodolfo Arredondo-Nontol Hospital “Carlos Alberto Cortez Jiménez” - EsSalud. Tumbes, Perú. Universidad Nacional de Tumbes. Tumbes, Perú. Médico especialista en medicina interna, Magister en Salud con mención en Salud Familiar y Comunitaria. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3333-2741
  • Marilu Barreto Espinoza Universidad Nacional de Tumbes. Tumbes, Perú. Psicóloga, Doctora en Psicología https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8883-5501

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2022.v22n4.12

Palabras clave:

Bioética, Ética, Discapacidad Intelectual, Hospitalización

Resumen

Las personas con discapacidad intelectual (PDI) son propensas a complicaciones durante algunas enfermedades debido a sus comorbilidades, por lo que requieren una atención hospitalaria diferenciada; sin embargo, no suelen recibir un trato idóneo y muchas veces se vulneran sus derechos, sobre todo en el ámbito ético. Los principios de justicia, no maleficencia, beneficencia y autonomía podrían estar transgrediéndose en el ámbito hospitalario no solo por parte del personal de salud, quienes, en oportunidades, brindan un trato deshumanizado y con poco involucramiento del cuidador, sino también por los sistemas de atención hospitalaria que no consideran las limitaciones, inequidades y necesidades prioritarias. Para identificar esta realidad se ha realizado la presente revisión narrativa donde se encontró 484 artículos de bases como Pubmed, Scopus y Lilacs, de los cuales se han incluido 53. Se destaca la escasa información directamente relacionada a la ética en la atención hospitalaria, sin embargo, se analizaron temas relacionados como salud reproductiva, trasplante, manejo de enfermedades crónicas y promoción de la salud, y se resaltó las faltas a la autonomía y justicia, principalmente. Luego de la revisión, se llegó a la conclusión de la importancia de difundir los principios éticos para todo el personal del sector salud, desde el inicio de su formación, así como sensibilizar a los decisores del rubro respecto al trato a las personas con discapacidad intelectual, especialmente en el ámbito hospitalario, donde se requiere un sistema de atención diferenciado y justo que favorezca la integración, el acceso y la comunicación.

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Publicado

2022-12-07

Cómo citar

1.
Reto N, Arredondo-Nontol M, Arredondo-Nontol R, Barreto Espinoza M. Implicancias éticas en la atención hospitalaria a personas con discapacidad intelectual: una revisión narrativa. Horiz Med [Internet]. 7 de diciembre de 2022 [citado 29 de enero de 2023];22(4):e1990. Disponible en: https://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1990

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