Riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular a largo plazo en mujeres con antecedente personal de abrupción placentaria

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2022.v22n4.13

Palabras clave:

Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Trastornos Cerebrovasculares, Complicaciones del Embarazo, Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales, Riesgo, Cuidados a Largo Plazo

Resumen

La salud materna y perinatal es una de las prioridades actuales de la salud global. La enfermedad cardiovascular y el accidente cerebrovascular son las principales causas de mortalidad materna. La abrupción placentaria sigue siendo una preocupación crítica para la morbilidad materna debido a que se ha asociado a enfermedad vascular a largo plazo. Sin embargo, no existe mucha literatura disponible en español ni evidencia reciente que haya dilucidado algunas interrogantes sobre este tópico. Entonces, el objetivo de esta revisión consiste en sintetizar evidencia reciente sobre el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular a largo plazo en mujeres con antecedente personal de abrupción placentaria. Se encontró que, a través de mecanismos fisiopatológicos complejos, que involucran la estructura y funcionalidad de la red vascular placentaria con posterior extensión de lesión vascular y producción de factores proinflamatorios y procoagulantes que permanecen después del parto, se precipita la aparición de eventos cardiovasculares mayores a mediano y largo plazo. Evidencia de alta calidad ha revelado que el riesgo de sufrir de complicaciones maternas en aquellas mujeres con abrupción placentaria es de 2,14, que se eleva aún más para aquellas con desprendimiento severo. A mediano y largo plazo, el riesgo de mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria es de 2,64, y de 1,70 para desorden cerebrovascular, con igual riesgo tanto para el tipo isquémico como hemorrágico. Entonces, se puede concluir que el riesgo cardiovascular y cerebrovascular es inminente en mujeres con antecedente de abrupción placentaria, dado por numerosos mecanismos fisiopatológicos vasculares. No obstante, este riesgo se eleva considerablemente al asociarse con factores modificables tradicionales y no tradicionales.

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2022-12-07

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Lozada Martínez ID, Navarro Peña MT, Castiblanco Cortes AI, Torres Villalobos AM, Duque Varela JP, Bautista Motta N, Parra Navarro CJ, Aponte Vargas GF, Tocarruncho Tiria M. Riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular a largo plazo en mujeres con antecedente personal de abrupción placentaria. Horiz Med [Internet]. 7 de diciembre de 2022 [citado 29 de enero de 2023];22(4):e1992. Disponible en: https://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1992

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