Glicocálix endotelial: relevancia clínica y enfoque traslacional

Resumen

El glicocálix endotelial es una estructura sin forma definida que recubre la capa luminal del endotelio vascular y que está constituido, principalmente, por tres elementos: proteoglicanos, glucosaminoglicanos y glicoproteínas. Cumple distintas funciones, como regular la permeabilidad vascular a las moléculas y líquidos, la transducción de las fuerzas mecánicas de tensión y las cascadas de fibrinólisis y coagulación vascular; además, protege de la adhesión leucocitaria, plaquetaria y de patógenos. Los determinantes de lesión del glicocálix pueden ser de varios tipos, por ejemplo, incremento las fuerzas de tensión, especies reactivas de oxígeno (O ), aumento, a nivel plasmático, de sustancias como el sodio (hipernatremia), glucosa (hiperglicemia) y colesterol (hipercolesterolemia), y las moléculas proinflamatorias. Cualquiera de las noxas citadas, individualmente o combinadas, lesionan el glicocálix y la disfunción resultante se expresará clínicamente como disfunción endotelial, aumento de la permeabilidad vascular, paso de lipoproteínas al subendotelio, activación de la coagulación o aumento de la adhesión de plaquetas y leucocitos al endotelio.


 

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Publicado
2019-12-06
Cómo citar
LUIS VÉLEZ, Jorge et al. Glicocálix endotelial: relevancia clínica y enfoque traslacional. Horizonte Médico (Lima), [S.l.], v. 19, n. 4, p. 84-92, dic. 2019. ISSN 2227-3530. Disponible en: <http://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1135>. Fecha de acceso: 05 abr. 2020 doi: https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2019.v19n4.12.
Sección
ARTÍCULOS DE REVISIÓN