Microbiota y sepsis

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2022.v22n2.13

Palabras clave:

Sepsis, Microbioma intestinal, Probióticos, Trasplante de microbiota fecal

Resumen

La sepsis es la respuesta desordenada del organismo a la infección y se caracteriza por un daño a los órganos que puede ser irreversible y mortal. El microbioma intestinal regula a un grupo de mecanismos homeostáticos en el huésped, como la función inmunológica y la protección de la barrera intestinal, la pérdida de la estructura y la función microbiana intestinal normal; además, se ha asociado con el inicio de enfermedades de características diversas. La evidencia reciente ha demostrado un nexo entre el microbioma intestinal y la sepsis: la alteración del microbioma intestinal aumenta la susceptibilidad a la sepsis a través de varios mecanismos como la expansión de bacterias intestinales patógenas, la respuesta proinflamatoria marcada y la disminución de la formación de productos microbianos beneficiosos como los ácidos grasos de cadena corta. Una vez establecida la sepsis, la alteración del microbioma intestinal empeora y aumenta la susceptibilidad a la disfunción del órgano terminal. Existen pruebas limitadas de que las terapias basadas en microbiomas (que incluyen a probióticos y a la descontaminación digestiva selectiva) pueden disminuir el riesgo de sepsis y mejorar sus resultados en poblaciones de pacientes seleccionadas, pero las preocupaciones sobre la seguridad causan una aceptación limitada. Si bien gran parte de la evidencia que vincula el microbioma intestinal y la sepsis se ha establecido en estudios preclínicos, aún es necesaria la evidencia clínica en distintas áreas.

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Publicado

2022-06-30

Cómo citar

1.
Vélez PA, López F, Montalvo M, Aguayo S, Velarde G, Jara FE, Torres P, Torres D, Vélez JL. Microbiota y sepsis. Horiz Med (Lima) [Internet]. 30 de junio de 2022 [citado 13 de agosto de 2022];22(2):e1692. Disponible en: https://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1692

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