Candidiasis sistémica en pacientes críticos, factores predictores de riesgo

Resumen

Candida sp. constituye el microorganismo más frecuentemente implicado en las infecciones por hongos en pacientes críticamente enfermos. La candidemia es la forma más común de candidiasis invasiva, ingresando al torrente sanguíneo por el tracto gastrointestinal y la piel. A nivel mundial la candidemia se destaca como una de las principales causas de morbilidad con aumentos significativos en la incidencia y prevalencia en los últimos años. Además, eleva los costos de la atención hospitalaria.


Aunque diversos estudios demuestran que el inicio temprano del tratamiento antifúngico mejora el pronóstico de los pacientes, se tienen dificultades con las pruebas diagnósticas existentes, debido a que no tienen un nivel adecuado de sensibilidad y un óptimo rendimiento. Por tal razón, en la actualidad se vienen utilizando diversos índices clínicos predictores de candidiasis invasiva como Ostrosky, Candida Score, Escala de Pittet, entre otros, los cuales tienen un alto valor predictivo negativo que permite reconocer los pacientes que no se benefician de un inicio temprano de un tratamiento antifúngico mientras se confirma el diagnóstico por laboratorio. La terapia antifúngica disponible para el tratamiento de las candidemias en UCI está compuesta básicamente por tres grupos de medicamentos, los azoles, los polienos y las equinocandinas.


A pesar de la validación de los índices predictores de candidiasis invasiva en otros países, se desconoce cuál de estos sería el más efectivo para predecir esta patología en la región.


 

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Publicado
2018-03-31
Cómo citar
LAZO, Víctor; HERNÁNDEZ, Gina; MÉNDEZ, Rafael. Candidiasis sistémica en pacientes críticos, factores predictores de riesgo. Horizonte Médico (Lima), [S.l.], v. 18, n. 1, p. 75-85, mar. 2018. ISSN 2227-3530. Disponible en: <http://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/710>. Fecha de acceso: 07 jul. 2020
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