Glicocálix endotelial: relevancia clínica y enfoque traslacional




El glicocálix endotelial es una estructura sin forma definida que recubre la capa luminal del endotelio vascular y que está constituido, principalmente, por tres elementos: proteoglicanos, glucosaminoglicanos y glicoproteínas. Cumple distintas funciones, como regular la permeabilidad vascular a las moléculas y líquidos, la transducción de las fuerzas mecánicas de tensión y las cascadas de fibrinólisis y coagulación vascular; además, protege de la adhesión leucocitaria, plaquetaria y de patógenos. Los determinantes de lesión del glicocálix pueden ser de varios tipos, por ejemplo, incremento las fuerzas de tensión, especies reactivas de oxígeno (O ), aumento, a nivel plasmático, de sustancias como el sodio (hipernatremia), glucosa (hiperglicemia) y colesterol (hipercolesterolemia), y las moléculas proinflamatorias. Cualquiera de las noxas citadas, individualmente o combinadas, lesionan el glicocálix y la disfunción resultante se expresará clínicamente como disfunción endotelial, aumento de la permeabilidad vascular, paso de lipoproteínas al subendotelio, activación de la coagulación o aumento de la adhesión de plaquetas y leucocitos al endotelio.



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Cómo citar

Luis Vélez, J., Montalvo, M., Vélez, P. A., Velarde, G., Jara González, F. E., & Barboza-Meca, J. (2019). Glicocálix endotelial: relevancia clínica y enfoque traslacional. Horizonte Médico (Lima), 19(4), 84–92.



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