Alteraciones genéticas en la vía canónica Wnt/β-catenina en cáncer colorrectal

Autores/as

  • Franklin Aldecoa Bedoya Clínica Internacional, sede San Borja. Lima, Perú. Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. Médico oncólogo. Profesor a tiempo parcial. Doctorando en Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3401-3689

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2022.v22n4.14

Palabras clave:

Vía de Señalización Wnt, beta Catenina, Neoplasias Colorrectales, Genes APC

Resumen

El objetivo de esta revisión es comprender la complejidad de la vía de señalización canónica Wnt/β-catenina (VSC-WβC) en el cáncer colorrectal (CCR): funcionamiento, principales mutaciones y nuevas moléculas terapéuticas en investigación. Se buscaron los artículos médicos más relevantes del tema en PubMed, Scopus y SciELO. VSC-WβC controla importantes fenómenos biológicos celulares; las alteraciones genéticas de esta vía contribuyen significativamente al CCR. La VSC-WβC se activa por la unión del ligando Wnt con el receptor Frizzled y la proteína relacionada al receptor 5 o 6 de la lipoproteína de baja densidad (LRP5/6); este complejo ternario en la membrana extracelular activa a las quinasas que inducen la fosforilación del dominio intracelular de LRP5/6 e inicia la cascada de señalización celular. La VSC-WβC está alterada en más del 90 % de todos los CCR, y es el gen de la poliposis coli adenomatosa, uno de los componentes con mayores transgresiones en este tipo de cáncer. La VSC-WβC es un blanco importante en la investigación de los nuevos tratamientos del cáncer, en los últimos años; varios inhibidores de la vía se han desarrollado para el tratamiento de CCR (anticuerpos monoclonales, proteínas inhibidoras, pequeñas moléculas selectivas y otras familias innovadoras), la mayoría de ellos en etapas preclínicas. En conclusión, el CCR está asociado con mutaciones en VSC-WβC, cuya activación continua otorga a las células cancerosas propiedades de crecimiento autorrenovables y se asocia con la resistencia al tratamiento del CCR. Existe una activa investigación de nuevas moléculas innovadoras que modulan esta vía de señalización; sin embargo, ninguna ha sido aprobada para uso comercial hasta la fecha.

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Publicado

2022-12-07

Cómo citar

1.
Aldecoa Bedoya F. Alteraciones genéticas en la vía canónica Wnt/β-catenina en cáncer colorrectal. Horiz Med [Internet]. 7 de diciembre de 2022 [citado 29 de enero de 2023];22(4):e1945. Disponible en: https://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1945

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