Biomarcadores plasmáticos : ¿nuevas pruebas no invasivas en el diagnóstico precoz de cáncer colorrectal?

Autores/as

  • Hugo Alpaca Universidad Nacional del Santa (UNS), Escuela de Medicina Humana. Chimbote, Perú. Hospital III EsSalud. Chimbote, Perú. Médico, patólogo clínico, Magíster en Bioquímica Clínica.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2022.v22n3.12

Palabras clave:

Detección Precoz del Cáncer, Neoplasias Colorrectales, Biomarcadores

Resumen

El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en los Estados Unidos y Europa; en el Perú alcanza el cuarto lugar, tanto en incidencia como en mortalidad. La colonoscopía es el patrón de referencia de las pruebas de screening, con una sensibilidad y especificidad para identificar pólipos y cáncer por encima del 98 %; sin embargo, es una prueba invasiva, que debe repetirse con cierta frecuencia y su implementación es costosa; tiene bajas tasas de cumplimiento y un riesgo de perforación de 1 por cada 1000 a 10 000 colonoscopias. Estas limitaciones hacen que no tenga éxito como herramienta de detección precoz en términos de costos de implementación en muchos países. Una alternativa es el uso de los biomarcadores plasmáticos de tumor, los cuales son productos moleculares metabolizados y secretados por el tejido neoplásico. Estas pruebas están fundamentadas en la obtención de proteínas o ácidos nucleicos, y representan una herramienta para la detección precoz, pronóstico, supervivencia y predicción de la respuesta al tratamiento del CCR. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la utilidad de los biomarcadores plasmáticos basados en proteínas para la detección precoz del CCR. Asimismo, se propone una combinación de biomarcadores que incluye el
antígeno carcinoembrionario, la ciclooxigenasa 2, el inhibidor tisular de metaloproteinasa-1 y el autoanticuerpo p53 para maximizar los beneficios de la detección precoz de lesiones premalignas y cáncer colorrectal, y minimizar el número de pacientes con pruebas falsas positivas e investigaciones invasivas con potenciales complicaciones.

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Publicado

2022-09-30

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1.
Alpaca H. Biomarcadores plasmáticos : ¿nuevas pruebas no invasivas en el diagnóstico precoz de cáncer colorrectal?. Horiz Med [Internet]. 30 de septiembre de 2022 [citado 2 de diciembre de 2022];22(3): e1977. Disponible en: https://www.horizontemedico.usmp.edu.pe/index.php/horizontemed/article/view/1977

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