Inmunología del cáncer I: bases moleculares y celulares de la respuesta inmune antitumoral

Autores/as

  • Joel de León Centro de Investigación de Infectología y Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad de San Martín de Porres. Lima, Perú http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3664-8023
  • Arturo Pareja Centro de Investigación de Infectología e Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad de San martín de Porres. Lima, Perú http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5988-5515

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2018.v18n3.11

Palabras clave:

Hernia discal, lumbalgia, desplazamiento del disco intervertebral, abombamiento discal, degeneración discal, extrusión discal, protrusión discal.

Resumen

Significativos recursos materiales, financieros y humanos se dedican a la investigación de la biología del cáncer. La validación de biomarcadores, el desarrollo de novedosos métodos para el diagnóstico y la terapia, la implementación de programas de pesquisa a nivel poblacional y la promoción de estilos de vida saludables han impactado positivamente en la prevención y control de este grupo de enfermedades. Sin embargo, el cáncer sigue siendo un problema de salud mundial, entre otros factores, por la compleja relación que se establece entre el sistema inmune del hospedero y las células neoplásicas. Está demostrado que los mecanismos efectores que posee el sistema inmune permiten detectar y eliminar las células transformadas. Sin embargo, estos mismos mecanismos promueven la evolución somática de los tumores, al seleccionar variantes celulares resistentes a la acción de la inmunidad. Esta interacción ocurre fundamentalmente en el microambiente tumoral y ha sido conceptualizada como inmunoedición tumoral. Lo anterior sustenta la racionalidad de la inmunoterapia, la que buscar reforzar la inmunidad antitumoral, a la vez que bloquea los mecanismos de evasión a la inmunovigilancia. Con este trabajo de revisión iniciamos una serie de tres artículos que, en este orden, recorrerán las bases moleculares y celulares de la respuesta inmune antitumoral, presentarán los fundamentos de la biología tumoral y, finalmente, abordarán las implicaciones de la compleja relación entre el sistema inmune y las neoplasias para la inmunoterapia en cáncer.

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Citas

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Publicado

2018-09-06

Cómo citar

de León, J., & Pareja, A. (2018). Inmunología del cáncer I: bases moleculares y celulares de la respuesta inmune antitumoral. Horizonte Médico (Lima), 18(3), 80–89. https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2018.v18n3.11

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Sección

Artículos de revisión