Factores asociados a complicaciones quirúrgicas en pacientes adultos mayores con neoplasias gastrointestinales del Centro Médico Naval

Autores/as

  • Xiomara Paredes Terrones Universidad Científica del Sur http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3312-0407
  • Carolina Pérez Agüero Universidad Científica del Sur, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Medicina Humana. Lima, Perú, Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara", Servicio de Geriatría. Callao, Perú, Médico Geriatra. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8072-5025
  • Fernando M. Runzer Colmenares Universidad Científica del Sur, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Medicina Humana. Lima, Perú, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Centro de Investigación del Envejecimiento (CIEN). Lima, Perú, Médico Geriatra. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7717-8996
  • José F. Parodi Universidad Científica del Sur, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Medicina Humana. Lima, Perú, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Centro de Investigación del Envejecimiento (CIEN). Lima, Perú,Médico Geriatra. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0336-0584

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2020.v20n1.07

Resumen

Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados a complicaciones quirúrgicas en pacientes adultos mayores con diagnóstico de neoplasias gastrointestinales del Centro Médico Naval del Perú.
Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva y análisis secundario de una base de datos. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a complicaciones postoperatorias de 245 pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gastrointestinal entre 2013 y 2015. Las variables fueron edad, fragilidad, vulnerabilidad, antecedentes patológicos, consumo de tabaco, perímetro de pantorrilla, dependencia funcional, caídas, polifarmacia y la localización del cáncer.
Resultados: El 29,8 % presentó complicaciones quirúrgicas, que fueron más frecuentes en los casos de cáncer de colon/recto con 82,19 %, la edad promedio fue de 86,3 años. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron dolor, hemorragia, trastornos hidroelectrolíticos e infección de sitio operatorio. Mediante el modelo de regresión ajustado, las variables que mostraron mayor asociación significativa fueron la presencia de 3 o más antecedentes patológicos, consumo de tabaco, perímetro de pantorrilla menor que 31 cm, dependencia funcional, caídas en el último año, polifarmacia, fragilidad, vulnerabilidad según VES-13 y localización del cáncer en colon/recto.
Conclusiones: Los factores que predisponen la aparición de complicaciones quirúrgicas fueron el cáncer en colon/recto, ser vulnerable (según la escala VES-13), ser frágil (según el fenotipo de Fried), la polifarmacia, haber sufrido caídas, dependencia funcional, perímetro de pantorrilla delgado, antecedente de consumo de tabaco, y tener 3 o más comorbilidades.

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Publicado

2020-03-25

Cómo citar

Paredes Terrones, X., Pérez Agüero, C., Runzer Colmenares, F. M., & Parodi, J. F. (2020). Factores asociados a complicaciones quirúrgicas en pacientes adultos mayores con neoplasias gastrointestinales del Centro Médico Naval. Horizonte Médico (Lima), 20(1), 45–53. https://doi.org/10.24265/horizmed.2020.v20n1.07

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